Archive for the ‘chemistry’ category

Aug 24, 2023

Scientists develop fermionic quantum processor

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers from Austria and the U.S. have designed a new type of quantum computer that uses fermionic atoms to simulate complex physical systems. The processor uses programmable neutral atom arrays and is capable of simulating fermionic models in a hardware-efficient manner using fermionic gates.

The team led by Peter Zoller demonstrated how the new quantum processor can efficiently simulate fermionic models from quantum chemistry and particle physics. The paper is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Fermionic atoms are atoms that obey the Pauli exclusion principle, which means that no two of them can occupy the same simultaneously. This makes them ideal for simulating systems where fermionic statistics play a crucial role, such as molecules, superconductors and quark-gluon plasmas.

Aug 24, 2023

CU Boulder researchers develop arrays of tiny crystals that deliver efficient wireless energy

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, drones, military, robotics/AI

Imagine a person on the ground guiding an airborne drone that harnesses its energy from a laser beam, eliminating the need for carrying a bulky onboard battery.

That is the vision of a group of CU Boulder scientists from the Hayward Research Group. In a new study, the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering researchers have developed a novel and resilient photomechanical material that can transform light energy into mechanical work without heat or electricity, offering innovative possibilities for energy-efficient, wireless and remotely controlled systems. Its wide-ranging potential spans across diverse industries, including robotics, aerospace and biomedical devices.

In a new study published in Nature Materials, the Hayward Research Group has developed a novel and resilient photomechanical material that can transform light energy into mechanical work without heat or electricity. The photomechanical materials offer a promising alternative to electrically-wired actuators, with the potential to wirelessly control or power robots or vehicles, such as powering a drone with a laser beam instead of a bulky on-board battery.

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Aug 23, 2023

Blood Protein Might Explain Why Exercise Keeps Our Brains Young

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, life extension, neuroscience

Step forward platelet factor 4 (PF4): this substance in the blood has been linked to the mental boost we get from exercise, the benefits of blood transfusions, and a protein associated with longevity, in three separate studies.

All three processes promote cognitive enhancement, meaning PF4 is something of a superpowered blood factor. The research was carried out by two teams from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) in the US and the University of Queensland in Australia.

Platelets are cell fragments that play a critical role in the clotting process. Aside from serving as physical plugs that staunch bleeding, these small, non-nucleated chunks of bone marrow cell contain granules that release chemicals to promote aggregation.

Aug 23, 2023

Scientists find origin-of-life molecule in space for first time

Posted by in categories: chemistry, cosmology, particle physics

A molecule common to Earth and usually associated with life has been detected in the depths of space by scientists.

Carbonic acid (HOCOOH), which you may know as the chemical that makes your soda fizzy, was discovered lurking near the center of our galaxy in a galactic center molecular cloud named G+0.693–0.027, a study published in The Astrophysical Journal revealed.

This marks the third time that carboxylic acids—this class of chemicals, often thought to be some of the building blocks of life —have been detected in space, after acetic acid and formic, and the first time that an interstellar molecule has been found to contain three or more oxygen atoms.

Aug 23, 2023

An Incredible New Crystal Can Transform Light Into Mechanical Work

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, engineering

Almost all forms of modern consumer technology are powered by electrochemical energy, otherwise known as batteries. Lithium-ion batteries, for example, transform chemical reactions into direct current energy while also producing a few side effects (mainly heat). But what if there was another way to power gadgets—say, lasers?

That’s the idea behind new research from the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and CU-Boulder. In a new study published this month in the journal Nature Materials, the team—led by chemical and electrical engineering professor Ryan Hayward—explored ways to leverage tiny crystals and directly transform light into mechanical work. At scale, such a breakthrough could remove the need for bulky batteries and all of the thermal management that comes with it.

Aug 23, 2023

New system captures fog and turns it into clean water

Posted by in categories: chemistry, particle physics, solar power, sustainability

People living in dry but foggy areas can benefit from this technology.

Researchers from ETH Zurich have developed a system that captures fog in the atmosphere and simultaneously removes contaminants while running using solar power.

The harvesting and water treatment system consists of a metal wire mesh with a solar-light-activated reactive coating that captures the fog. The droplets of water then trickle down into a container below. The mesh is coated with a mixture of specially selected polymers and titanium dioxide, which acts as a chemical catalyst and breaks down the molecules of the pollutants into harmless particles.

Aug 23, 2023

Powering Ahead: Nobel-Winning Chemistry Unleashes Next-Generation Energy Storage Devices

Posted by in categories: chemistry, energy, sustainability, transportation

Flexible polymers made with a new generation of the Nobel-winning “click chemistry” reaction find use in capacitors and other applications.

Society’s increasing demand for high-voltage electrical technologies – including pulsed power systems, cars, electrified aircraft, and renewable energy applications – requires a new generation of capacitors that store and deliver large amounts of energy under intense thermal and electrical conditions.

A new polymer-based device that efficiently handles record amounts of energy while withstanding extreme temperatures and electric fields has now been developed by researchers at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Scripps Research. The device is composed of materials synthesized via a next-generation version of the chemical reaction for which three scientists won the 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Aug 22, 2023

CALEC Cell Therapy Repairs Corneal Damage in Phase I Study

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

Researchers headed by a team at Mass Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, reported positive data from a Phase I clinical study evaluating a stem cell treatment known as cultivated autologous limbal epithelial cell transplantation (CALEC), in patients with significant chemical burns in one eye. Results from the study, reported in Science Advances, showed treatment to be safe and well tolerated in four patients who were followed for 12 months. The CALEC recipients experienced restored cornea surfaces, with two trial participants able to undergo subsequent corneal transplant, and two reporting significant improvements in vision without additional treatment.

The Phase I study was designed to determine preliminary safety and feasibility before advancing to a second phase of the trial, and the researchers consider the newly reported early findings to be promising. On the basis of these initial results the team started recruiting for a second phase of the trial that will investigate longer-term safety and efficacy in greater numbers of patients.

“Our early results suggest that CALEC might offer hope to patients who had been left with untreatable vision loss and pain associated with major cornea injuries,” said principal investigator Ula Jurkunas, MD, associate director of the Cornea Service at Mass Eye and Ear and an associate professor of ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School. “Cornea specialists have been hindered by a lack of treatment options with a high safety profile to help our patients with chemical burns and injuries that render them unable to get an artificial cornea transplant. We are hopeful with further study, CALEC can one day fill this crucially needed treatment gap.”

Aug 22, 2023

Scientists Develop Drug That Prevents Weight Gain in Junk-Food-Eating Mice

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics, health

Now maybe we can snack happily! I think this applies to regular food too? I can eat all the Chinese and Mexican and Italian food I want? Plus for people with genetic risks can’t this not help? I hope so.

Mice fed a high-sugar, high-fat diet for most of their lives managed to escape weight gain and protect their livers when they were treated with an experimental new drug.

The small-molecule drug was developed by a team led by The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UT Health San Antonio). K nown by its chemical acronym CPACC, it works by limiting the entry of magnesium into the mitochondria, the parts of the cell in charge of generating energy and burning calories.

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Aug 21, 2023

Stereodivergent synthesis with a programmable molecular machine

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, nanotechnology

This could lead to cures of all diseases and disorders of the human biological systems because one could edit them out 😗😁.

A molecular machine that can be programmed to position a substrate at one of two directing sites on a molecule, which control the stereochemistry of addition to the substrate, demonstrates complexity, precision and function previously only observed in nature.

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